Lupus: An Overview of the Disease And Management Options

 

research paper on lupus

Lupus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with a wide range of clinical presentations resulting from its effect on multiple organ systems. There are four main types of lupus: neonatal, discoid, drug-induced, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the type that affects the majority of tkowntalks.cf by: Jul 23,  · Research Paper on Lupus July 23, UsefulResearchPapers Research Papers 0 Lupus erythematosus is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease of the connective family, that is to say, involving several organs, connective tissue, which manifests itself differently in different individuals. Research Papers on the Types of Lupus Types of Lupus Research Papers investigate systemic lupus, and drug induced lupus. Research papers on the types of Lupus outline the disease and then focus on the three types of Lupus that are found today. Our medical health research paper writers can focus on any disease you need.


Effective Papers: Research Paper on Lupus


Lupus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with a wide range research paper on lupus clinical presentations resulting from its effect on multiple organ systems.

There are four main types of lupus: neonatal, discoid, drug-induced, and systemic research paper on lupus erythematosus SLEthe type that affects the majority of patients. Patients with lupus experience a loss of self-tolerance as a result of abnormal immunological function and the production of autoantibodies, which lead to the formation of immune complexes that may adversely affect healthy tissue.

Although the precise etiologic mechanism is unknown, genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors, as well as immune abnormalities, have been identified. Associations between lupus onset and age, sex, geography, and race research paper on lupus also been established. Management of this disease should be individualized and should include both pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities for symptom relief and resolution as well as improved quality of life.

Lupus is associated with multisystemic inflammation resulting from abnormal immunological function, research paper on lupus. Patients experience periodic flares of varying severity or instances in which no observable signs or symptoms are present.

As a rare form of lupus observed in newborns, NLE is thought to result from maternal autoantibodies passing through the placenta. Common clinical presentations involve the heart, liver, and skin. Significant morbidity and mortality, along with cardiac manifestations, have been noted; however, research paper on lupus, in most NLE patients with other organ involvement e.

The cause is thought to be genetic, with the highest prevalence in women, African-Americans, and persons between 20 and 40 years of age. The diagnosis is frequently made by biopsy of a rash on the scalp, face, neck, or arms. Chemical and physical sunblocks, topical corticosteroids, or antimalarial agents are commonly used to prevent disease flares and to manage the clinical manifestations associated with DLE.

DIL occurs after exposure to research paper on lupus medication, causing an autoimmune response. Various organ systems may be affected, but clinical manifestations usually subside upon discontinuation of the responsible agent. DIL is discussed on page SLE is the most common type of lupus and is therefore the focus of this review. SLE is diagnosed in approximately 20 to persons perand is typically seen in females of child-bearing age; however, it may affect male or female patients at any age.

Arriving at the correct diagnosis of lupus is a challenge, considering the multitude of clinical presentations observed. The disease can affect the research paper on lupus, lungs, skin, nervous system, and musculoskeletal system as well as other organs of the body. In recent decades, mortality rates attributed to SLE have declined as a result of earlier disease detection and advances in treatment. A common cause of late mortality related to SLE is an accelerated atherosclerosis that is associated with either the disease or the treatment.

SLE is a chronic disease that affects various organ systems, primarily as a consequence of the formation and deposition of autoantibodies and immune complexes, leading to eventual organ damage. Hyperactive B cells, resulting from T-cell and antigen stimulation, increase the production of these antibodies against antigens that are exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells.

The antigens causing T-cell and B-cell research paper on lupus in patients with SLE can be attributed to the inappropriate disposal of apoptotic cells. During the process of cellular death, pieces of cellular material form on the surface of the dying cell. Antigens that are normally absent on the surface of the cellular material, but instead are embedded within, are now present on the cell surface. Nucleosomes and anionic phospholipids are examples of antigens that have been identified in patients with SLE, and they have the potential to trigger an immune response.

The T-cell receptor binds to the major histocompatibility complex MHC portion of the APC, which may lead to cytokine release, inflammation, and B-cell stimulation. Patients may have positive results for more than one ANA. Other examples of ANAs are the anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies that, when detected during pregnancy, have been linked to fetal heart damage as research paper on lupus as the anti-Smith Sm antibodies, which research paper on lupus a marker of kidney disease.

A second grouping of autoantibodies targets the phospholipid moiety of the prothrombin activator complex as well as cardiolipin. These antiphospholipid antibodies can lead to abnormal clotting as well as loss of pregnancy.

In summary, the presence of hyperactive B cells leading to the production of autoantibodies, in conjunction with the impaired removal of apoptotic cellular material, results in the formation of immune complexes.

In the microvasculature, these complexes induce inflammatory reactions, causing the tissue inflammation and damage associated with SLE. The etiologic mechanism of SLE remains unknown, but multiple associations have been identified as a result of decades of research. Genetic, hormonal, immunological, and environmental factors all play a role in the development of SLE.

Studies focusing on a potential connection between research paper on lupus and SLE have shown a genetic predisposition within families. First-degree relatives of patients with SLE are significantly more likely to have the disease compared with the rest of the population. The investigation of a genetic influence on SLE has led to the discovery of a number of gene variants linked to SLE expression. Typically, a combination of these genetic variants leads to the clinical research paper on lupus of SLE.

For example, the complement component C1q eliminates necrotic cellular waste apoptotic material in healthy individuals. In patients with Research paper on lupus, a possible deficiency of the C1q component can lead to disease expression.

A second example of genetic variance is a possible deficiency of the C4 complement, a component identified in the elimination of self-reactive B cells. When the overall genetic picture of a patient with SLE is taken into account, the additive effects of these genetic variances significantly increase the risk of SLE progression.

The effect of hormones on the rate of occurrence and the severity of SLE has been of particular interest to researchers.

The mechanism by which hormones affect SLE prevalence remains unknown. One hypothesis focuses on the roles of estrogens, progesterone, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone DHEAand prolactin in immune system responsiveness. Estrogen has been linked to the stimulation of T and B cells, macrophages, and cytokines. The hallmark of SLE is the formation research paper on lupus autoantibodies that go on to form immune complexes in combination with antigensleading to inflammation and tissue damage.

Environmental factors include certain viruses and ultra-violet UV light. UV light stimulates keratinocytes, leading to B-cell stimulation and antibody production; it may also stimulate T-cell activity, resulting in additional autoantibody production. The incidence of SLE varies among ethnic groups and by geographic location, sex, and age. The reported prevalence of SLE in the general population is approximately 20 to cases perpersons.

Epidemiologic data utilizing lupus registries point to the need for larger, population-based studies with a large patient base. Such data are currently lacking because of potential obstacles, such as differing case definitions, small-source populations, and varying demographic group targets.

SLE is more common in women, particularly those of child-bearing age. This increased incidence may be attributed to hormones, namely estrogen, as studies have shown women who had an early menarche or who used oral contraceptives or hormonal therapies had an increased risk of SLE. The presentation of SLE can be complex, considering the number of organ systems that can be affected by the research paper on lupus. Patients experience flare-ups to varying degrees as well as periods of disease remission.

Although certain signs and symptoms are common in SLE, research paper on lupus, every patient presents with a unique set of identifiers. General signs and symptoms observed in SLE include fever, fatigue, and weight loss. The skin, musculoskeletal system, and pulmonary system are primarily affected, research paper on lupus.

SLE patients who report symptoms involving the skin most commonly have a red rash on the nose and cheeks following exposure to the sun. Patients experiencing photosensitivity reactions also report skin rashes on other areas of the body that were exposed to the sun.

Arthritis can affect any minor or major joints, commonly presenting as painful, stiff joints accompanied by either occasional or persistent inflammation. Patients with pulmonary symptoms report painful breathing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Pleural effusion and pulmonary hypertension have also been reported.

SLE also affects the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and hematological systems, as well as the central nervous system CNS. Cardiovascular effects often include pericarditis, myocarditis, endocarditis, and coronary artery disease. Signs of gastrointestinal involvement include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Hematological changes reported in SLE include anemia as well as leukopenia or thrombocyto-penia.

SLE patients with CNS manifestations may experience headaches, depression, anxiety, seizures, stroke, or cognitive impairment.

Renal involvement in SLE typically results in diminished kidney function, which may result in elevated serum creatinine levels and proteinuria.

Patients with renal involvement have a poorer prognosis, with likely progression to end-stage renal disease, which can be life-threatening. Autoantibodies appear to be involved in the formation of immune complexes, which may be deposited in the kidneys, leading to renal infiltration by T cells, macrophages, research paper on lupus, and other cells.

The diagnosis of SLE is based on observed signs and symptoms, laboratory testing, and diagnostic testing tailored to each patient.

In addition to autoantibody testing, other commonly performed diagnostic laboratory analyses include a complete blood count CBC with differential, research paper on lupus, a complete metabolic profile, and a urinalysis to determine the creatinine clearance and the presence of proteinuria or active sediment.

The testing of complement levels C3 and C4 as potential markers during SLE flares is also useful and is research paper on lupus studied further. Diagnostic testing may be individualized to address signs and symptoms affecting each patient.

Radiography can be used to assess joint involvement; renal ultrasound, kidney size and impairment; chest radiography, pulmonary involvement; and electrocardiography, chest pain. Each year, approximately 15, to 30, cases of lupus are induced by a pharmaceutical product. Procainamide e. Unlike that of idiopathic SLE, the incidence of DIL is similar among men and women; the disease primarily research paper on lupus patients of advanced age.

The exact cause of DIL is unknown, but genetics are believed to be involved. Patients who are slow acetylators, particularly those taking procainamide or hydralazine, have a higher risk of developing DIL.

The presence of autoantibodies is a significant immunological finding in DIL. Procainamide and hydralazine are the two agents most often implicated in the development of DIL. Most patients test positive for ANAs if they were taking procainamide for more than 2 years, 67 research paper on lupus true in patients with the slow acetylator phenotype.

Patients with DIL commonly present with fever, fatigue, myalgia, research paper on lupus, arthralgia, pericarditis, and pleuritis, research paper on lupus. The remedy for DIL is to discontinue taking the offending agent. Antimalarials and corticosteroids may be given if the symptoms of DIL are considered to be very serious, research paper on lupus. Following discontinuation of the suspected drug, patients should experience improvement within days to weeks, although some cases of DIL may take a year or longer for the disease manifestations to resolve completely.

The approach to the treatment of signs and symptoms of lupus depends on the type and the severity of disease. General recommendations for all patients include sun protection, proper diet and nutrition, exercise, smoking cessation, appropriate immunizations, and management of comorbid conditions.

In patients with mild-to-moderate lupus, research paper on lupus, NSAIDs, anti-malarial agents, and corticosteroids are commonly used to treat signs and symptoms. As the disease progresses and clinical manifestations worsen, high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents are used to help control disease progression. A list of drugs commonly used to treat SLE is presented in Table 1.

 

Advancing Research | Lupus Foundation of America

 

research paper on lupus

 

Jul 23,  · Research Paper on Lupus July 23, UsefulResearchPapers Research Papers 0 Lupus erythematosus is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease of the connective family, that is to say, involving several organs, connective tissue, which manifests itself differently in different individuals. The studies we funded provided the foundation for every lupus research breakthrough during the past 40 years. Throughout our history, we have made pioneering contributions toward ending the brutal impact of lupus. And our efforts to accelerate lupus research won’t stop until the job is done. It. Research Paper on Lupus Essay Lupus erythematosus is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease of the connective family, that is to say, involving several organs, connective tissue, which manifests itself differently in different individuals.